Background and Objective: Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, it has spread around the world and become a global public health emergency. It is important to distinguish COVID-19 from other viral pneumonias in order to properly screen and diagnose patients, reduce nosocomial infections, and complement the inadequacy of nucleic acid testing. In this study, we retrospectively analysed the clinical data of COVID-19 versus non-COVID-19 patients treated at our hospital between January 17 and February 27, 2020 in order to summarize our clinical experience in the differential diagnosis of COVID-19. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, 23 confirmed COVID-19 patients were consecutively enrolled from January 17 to February 27, 2020, while 29 confirmed non-COVID-19 patients were enrolled in West China Hospital of Sichuan University. We collected baseline data, epidemiological data, clinical characteristics, imaging findings, viral nucleic acid test results, and survival data. SPSS v22.0 was used for statistical analysis. Outcomes were followed up until March 25. Results: A total of 52 patients were included in this study, including 23 COVID-19 patients and 29 non-COVID-19 patients. No significant between-group difference was observed in age, sex, primary signs or symptoms, cellular immunity, or platelet count. Significant between-group differences were observed in clinical characteristics such as dry cough, contact with individuals from Wuhan, some underlying diseases, nucleated cell count, chest imaging findings, viral nucleic acid test result,28-day mortality, and 28-day survival. Conclusion: Epidemiological data, clinical symptoms, nucleic acid test results for COVID-19 and chest CT manifestation may help distinguish COVID-19 from non-COVID-19 cases, prevent imported cases and nosocomial infections.