Background: The efficacy of the humoral and cellular immunity determines the outcome of viral infections. An appropriate immune response mediates protection, whereas an overwhelming immune response has been associated with immune-mediated pathogenesis in viral infections. The current study explored the general and SARS-CoV-2 specific cellular and humoral immune status in patients with different COVID-19 severities. Methods: In this prospective study, we included 53 patients with moderate, severe, and critical COVID-19 manifestations comparing their quantitative, phenotypic, and functional characteristics of circulating immune cells, SARS-CoV-2 antigen specific T-cells, and humoral immunity. Results: Significantly diminished frequencies of CD8+T-cells, CD4+ and CD8+T-cell subsets with activated differentiated memory/effector phenotype and migratory capacity were found in circulation in patients with severe and/or critical COVID-19 as compared to patients with moderate disease. Importantly, the improvement of the clinical courses from severe to moderate was accompanied by an improvement in the T-cell subset alterations. Furthermore, we surprisingly observed a detectable SARS-CoV-2-reactive T-cell response in all three groups after stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 S-protein overlapping peptide pool already at the first visit. Of note, patients with a critical COVID-19 demonstrated a stronger response of SARS-CoV-2-reactive T-cells producing Th1 associated inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, clear correlation between antibody titers and SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD4+ frequencies underscore the role of specific immunity in disease progression. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that depletion of activated memory phenotype circulating T-cells and a strong SARS-CoV-2-specific cellular and humoral immunity are associated with COVID-19 disease severity. This counter-intuitive finding may have important implications for diagnostic, therapeutic and prophylactic COVID-19 management.