Aim: The aim of this study was to uncover whether kidney diseases were involved in COVID-19 pandemic from a systematic review. Methods: The studies reported the kidney outcomes in different severity of COVID-19 were included in this study. Standardized mean differences or odds ratios were calculated by employing Review Manager meta-analysis software. Results: Thirty-six trials were included in this systematic review with a total of 6395 COVID-19 patients. The overall effects indicated that the comorbidity of chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR = 3.28), complication of acute kidney injury (AKI) (OR = 11.02), serum creatinine (SMD = 0.68), abnormal serum creatinine (OR = 4.86), blood urea nitrogen (SMD = 1.95), abnormal blood urea nitrogen (OR = 6.53), received continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) (OR = 23.63) was significantly increased in severe group than that in nonsevere group. Additionally, the complication of AKI (OR = 13.92) and blood urea nitrogen (SMD = 1.18) were remarkably elevated in critical group than that in severe group. Conclusion: CKD and AKI are susceptible to occur in patients with severe COVID-19. CRRT is applied frequently in severe COVID-19 patients than that in nonsevere COVID-19 patients. The risk of AKI is higher in critical group than that in severe group.