Importance: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is considered to have potential neuro-invasiveness that might lead to acute brain disorders or contribute to respiratory distress in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data in COVID-19 patients are scarce due to difficulties to obtain such examination in infected unstable patients during the COVID-19 outbreak. Objective: To investigate the occurrence of structural brain abnormalities in non-survivors of COVID-19 in a virtopsy framework. Design: Prospective, case series study with postmortem brain MRI obtained early (<24h) after death. Setting: Monocentric study. Participants: From 31/03/2020 to 24/04/2020, consecutive decedents who fulfilled the following inclusion criteria were included: death <24 hours, SARS-CoV-2 detection on nasopharyngeal swab specimen, chest computerized tomographic (CT) scan suggestive of COVID-19, absence of known focal brain lesion, and MRI compatibility. Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s): Signs of acute brain injury and MRI signal abnormalities along the olfactory tract and brainstem were searched independently by 3 neuroradiologists, then reviewed with neurologists and clinicians. Results: Among the 62 patients who died from COVID-19 during the inclusion period, 19 decedents fulfilled inclusion criteria. Subcortical micro- and macro-bleeds (2 decedents), cortico-subcortical edematous changes evocative of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES, one decedent), and nonspecific deep white matter changes (one decedent) were observed. Asymmetric olfactory bulbs were found in 4 other decedents without downstream olfactory tract abnormalities. No brainstem MRI signal abnormality. Conclusions and Relevance: Postmortem brain MRI demonstrates hemorrhagic and PRES-related brain lesions in non-survivors of COVID-19 that might be triggered by the virus-induced endothelial disturbances. SARS-CoV-2-related olfactory impairment seems to be limited to olfactory bulbs. The absence of brainstem MRI abnormalities does not support a brain-related contribution to respiratory distress in COVID-19.