Introduction In general SARS-CoV-2-infection during pregnancy is not considered to be an increased risk for severe maternal outcomes, but has been associated with an increased risk for fetal distress. So far, there is no direct evidence of intrauterine vertical transmission and the mechanisms leading to the adverse outcomes are not well understood Results An asymptomatic pregnant woman with preterm fetal distress during the COVID19 pandemic was included. We obtained multiple maternal, placental and neonatal swabs, which showed a median viral load in maternal blood, urine, oropharynx, fornix posterior over a period of 6 days was 5.0 log copies /mL. The maternal side of the placenta had a viral load of 4.42 log copies /mL, while the fetal side had 7.15 log copies /mL. Maternal breast milk, feces and all neonatal samples tested negative. Serology of immunoglobulins against SARS-CoV-2 was tested positive in maternal blood, but negative in umbilical cord and neonatal blood. Pathological examination of the placenta included immunohistochemical investigation against SARS-CoV-2 antigen expression in combination with SARS-CoV-2 RNA in situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy. It showed the presence of SARS-CoV-2 particles with generalized inflammation characterized by histiocytic intervillositis with diffuse perivillous fibrin depositions with damage to the syncytiotrophoblasts. Discussion Placental infection by SARS-CoV-2 lead to fibrin depositions hampering fetal-maternal gas exchange most likely resulted in fetal distress necessitating a premature emergency caesarean section. Postpartum, the neonate showed a clinical presentation resembling a pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome including coronary artery ectasia, most likely associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) for which admittance and care on the Neonatal Intensive Care unit (NICU) was required, despite being negative for SARS-CoV-2. This highlights the need for awareness of adverse fetal and neonatal outcomes during the current COVID-19 pandemic, especially considering that the majority of pregnant women appear asymptomatic.