Immune responses in lungs of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) are poorly characterized. We conducted transcriptomic, histologic and cellular profiling of post mortem COVID-19 and normal lung tissues. Two distinct immunopathological reaction patterns were identified. One pattern showed high expression of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) and cytokines, high viral loads and limited pulmonary damage, the other pattern showed severely damaged lungs, low ISGs, low viral loads and abundant immune infiltrates. Distinct patterns of pulmonary COVID-19 immune responses correlated to hospitalization time and may guide treatment and vaccination approaches.