The global spread of COVID-19 has been lasted more than half a year. Except for the gene sequence and virus structure of SARS-CoV-2, its clinical characteristics, pathological mechanism and corresponding measures have not been fully revealed.
Objective: To speculate the possible pathological mechanism from the early clinical manifestations of the patients with COVID-19.
Methods: The onset symptoms, laboratory examination and CT findings on admission of 300 cases in two wards of Wuhan Third Hospital from January 28 to March 15 were analyzed retrospectively.
Results: There was no difference in incidence between men and women, but women were hospitalized later after onset. Upper respiratory symptoms and sputum were seldom. The incidence of fever was 71%. Blood lymphocytes count decreased significantly on admission, which was related to the severity of the disease. In the moderate type of patients, who without hypoxia, thrombocytopenia occurred in 12.37%, CRP rose in 64.43 %, BUN elevated in 20.62 %, creatinine rose in 17.53 %, D-dimer elevated in 74.74%, creatine kinase and α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase elevated in 45.36% and 54.12% patients respectively. The early CT showed a small amount of infiltration in the subpleural, the lateral zone of the lung and thickening of the interlobular septum. About 5 days later, infiltration had been worse in a part of the patients, and the affected lung was negatively correlated with the lymphocyte count.
Conclusion: There was no gender difference in patients with SARS-CoV-2 invasion. Alveolar cells and T lymphocytes maybe main targets of the virus and apoptosis maybe primary pathogenesis. The virus entering the lung maybe transmitted through lymph or blood channels, rather than direct diffused in the respiratory tract. Early damage of multiple organs maybe caused by immune response.