Aged population with comorbidities demonstrated high mortality rate and severe clinical outcome in the patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, whether age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index score (CCIS) predict fatal outcomes remains uncertain. This retrospective, nationwide cohort study was performed to evaluate patient mortality and clinical outcome according to CCIS among the hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infection. We included 5,621 patients who had been discharged from isolation or had died from COVID-19 by April 30, 2020. The primary outcome was composites of death, admission to intensive care unit (ICU), use of mechanical ventilator or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The secondary outcome was mortality. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard model was used to evaluate CCIS as the independent risk factor for death. Among 5,621 patients, the high CCIS (≥3) group showed higher proportion of elderly population and lower plasma hemoglobin and lower lymphocyte and platelet counts. The high CCIS group was an independent risk factor for composite outcome (HR 3.63, 95% CI 2.45-5.37, P < 0.001) and patient mortality (HR 22.96, 95% CI 7.20-73.24, P < 0.001). The nomogram demonstrated that the CCIS was the most potent predictive factor for patient mortality. The predictive nomogram using CCIS for the hospitalized patients with COVID-19 may help clinicians to triage the high-risk population and to concentrate limited resources to manage them.