Background: There are limited data on long-term outcome and mortality predictors of COVID-19 from different parts of the world. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors of 90-day mortality in critically-ill patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Turkish ICUs.
Methods: This multicenter, retrospective study was performed in 26 ICUs in Turkey. All patients with confirmed SARS-CoV2 infection, requiring more than 24 hours of ICU follow-up were included in the study. Demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory variables, respiratory support, treatment types, and survival data were recorded.
Results: A total of 421 patients were included in the study. The median age was 67 (IQR: 57-76) years, and 251 patients (59.6%) were men. 90-day mortality rate was 55.1%. Factors independently associated with 90-day mortality were receiving invasive mechanical ventilation (HR 4.09 [95% CI: 2.20-7.63]), admission lactate level > 2 mmol/L (2.78 [1.93-4.01]), age ≥ 60 years (2.45 [1.48-4.06)]), having cardiac arrhythmia during ICU stay (2.01 [1.27-3.20]), receiving vasopressor treatment (1.94 [1.32-2.84]), positive fluid balance of ≥ 600 ml/per day during ICU follow-up (1.68 [1.21-2.34]), admission PaO2/FiO2 ratio of ≤ 150 mmHg (1.66 [1.18-2.32], and baseline ECOG score ≥ 1 (1.42 [1.00-2.02].
Conclusion: This study has shown that long-term mortality was high in critically-ill COVID-19 patients in Turkish ICUs. Invasive mechanical ventilation, high lactate level, older age, presence of cardiac arrhythmia, need for vasopressor treatment, positive fluid balance, severe hypoxemia and not having fully-active performance were related with mortality.