Background Immunocompromised patients show prolonged shedding of SARS-CoV-2 in nasopharyngeal swabs. We report a case of a prolonged persistence of viable SARS-CoV-2 associated with clinical relapses of COVID-19 in a lymphoma patient. Methods Nasopharyngeal swabs and blood samples were tested for SARS-CoV-2 by Real time-PCR (RT-PCR). On five positive nasopharyngeal swabs, we performed viral culture and next generation sequencing. We analysed the patient's adaptive and innate immunity to characterize T and NK cell subsets. Findings SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs samples remained positive with cycle threshold mean values of 22±1.3 for over 8 months. All five performed viral cultures were positive and genomic analysis confirmed a persistent infection with the same strain. Viremia resulted positive in three out of four COVID-19 clinical relapses and cleared each time after remdesivir treatment. T and NK cells dynamic was different in aviremic and viremic samples and no SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies were detected throughout the disease course. Interpretation In our patient, SARS-CoV-2 persisted with proven infectivity for over eight months. Viremia was associated with COVID-19 relapses and remdesivir treatment was effective in viremia clearance and symptoms remission, although it was unable to clear the virus from the upper respiratory airways. During the viremic phase, we observed a low frequency of terminal effector CD8+ T lymphocytes in peripheral blood that are probably recruited in inflammatory tissue for viral eradication. In addition we found a high level of NK cells repertoire perturbation with a relevant involvement during SARS-CoV-2 viremia.