SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of COVID-19 and is a severe threat to global health. Patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 show a wide range of symptoms and disease severity, while limited data is available on its immunogenicity. Here, the kinetics of the development of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses in relation to clinical features and dynamics of specific B-cell populations are reported. Immunophenotyping of B cells was performed by flow cytometry with longitudinally collected PBMCs. In parallel, serum samples were analyzed for the presence of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA, IgG, and IgM antibodies using whole proteome peptide microarrays. Soon after disease onset in a mild case, we observed an increased frequency of plasmablasts concomitantly with a strong SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA response. In contrast, a case with more severe progression showed a delayed, but eventually very strong and broad SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA response. This case study shows that determining SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody epitopes can be valuable to monitor the specificity and magnitude of the early B-cell response, which could guide the development of vaccine candidates. Follow-up studies are required to evaluate whether the kinetics and strength of the SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA response could be potential prognostic markers of viral control.