The newly emerged pandemic coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has posed a significant public health threat worldwide. However, the mode of virus transmission and tissue tropism is not well established yet. Recent findings of substantial liver damage in patients and ACE2+ cholangiocytes in healthy liver tissues prompted us to hypothesize that human liver ductal organoids could serve as a model to determine the susceptibility and mechanisms underlining the liver damage upon SARS-CoV-2 infection. By single-cell RNA sequencing, we found that long-term liver ductal organoid culture preserved the human specific ACE2+ population of cholangiocytes. Moreover, human liver ductal organoids were permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection and support robust replication. Notably, virus infection impaired the barrier and bile acid transporting functions of cholangiocytes through dysregulation of genes involved in tight junction formation and bile acid transportation, which could explain the bile acid accumulation and consequent liver damage in patients. These results indicate that control of liver damage caused directly by viral infection should be valued in treating COVID-19 patients. Our findings also provide an application of human organoids in investigating the tropism and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2, which would facilitate novel drug discovery.