Serologic assays are needed to determine SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence, but poor specificity can overestimate exposures. Here, we built a pan-human coronavirus proteome-wide programmable phage display assay (VirScan) to profile coronavirus antigens specifically enriched by 20 COVID-19 patient serum IgG. With ReScan, a new diagnostic development workflow which combines the isolation of phage expressing the most immunogenic peptides with paper-based microarrays manufactured via acoustic liquid handling, we identified 9 candidate antigens from a library of 534 SARS-CoV-2 peptides. These arrays could form the basis of a multiplexed COVID-19 serologic assay with enhanced specificity. ReScan has broad applicability for serologic assay development.