Data for ten European countries which provide detailed distribution of COVID-19 cases by sex and age show that among people of working age, women diagnosed with COVID-19 substantially outnumber infected men. This pattern reverses around retirement: infection rates among women fall at age 60-69, resulting in a cross-over with infection rates among men. The relative disadvantage of women peaks at ages 20-29, whereas the male disadvantage in infection rates peaks at ages 70-79. The elevated infection rates among women of working age are likely tied to their higher share in health- and care-related occupations. Our examination also suggests a link between women's employment profiles and infection rates in prime working ages. The same factors that determine women's higher life expectancy account for their lower fatality and higher male disadvantage at older ages.