Background: Several medications already placed in the world therapeutic guidelines for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were given to affected patients and produced positive and negative outcomes.
Aims of the study: This review evaluated therapeutic outcomes (recovery and mortality) used for COVID-19 patient management in clinical settings since the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 the causative agent of (COVID-19).
Method: The PRISMA-P and PRISMA statements were used to facilitate the development and reporting of this systematic review. Included articles were full-text articles, written in English and published in peer-reviewed journals from March 26, 2020. Recent eligible systematic review articles were also included for interpretation and analysis. Data were reported as percentage changes compared to the total number of patients in each study. For each drug, the proportion of positive outcomes were compared to the proportion of negative outcomes using a z-test (p < 0.05) to determine statistical significance.
Results: The total number of eligible studies included in this review was 69, and 48 different therapeutics were reported. The data analysis showed positive outcomes for COVID-19 patient treatments using hydroxychloroquine (66.6%), azithromycin (55.5%), lopinavir/ritonavir (54.9%), systemic corticosteroids (52%), umifenovir (51.2%), interferon (50%), remdesivir (45.9%), Ribavirin (43.5%), moxifloxacin (35.3%) and oseltamivir (33.6%). Negative outcomes were related mainly to systemic corticosteroids (21.3%), followed by remdesivir (16.9%), moxifloxacin (13.4%) and oseltamivir (12.5%). However, when comparing the proportions of positive outcomes to negative outcomes for reported drugs, the only statistically significant outcomes were observed among the hydroxychloroquine (p < 0.05) treatment group.
Conclusion: This study systematically reviewed 69 research articles linking therapies to clinical outcomes for COVID-19 patients. This review has provided insight into recovery and mortality outcomes associated with available COVID-19 therapeutic options. Data analysis showed positive outcomes for COVID-19 patient treatments primarily with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and lopinavir/ritonavir.