Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread throughout the world and caused hundreds of thousands of infected people to death. However, the pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS COV-2) is poorly understood. The objective of this study is to retrospectively explore the pathogenesis of COVID-19 from clinical laboratory findings, taking disease progression into account.
A single-centered, retrospective study was carried out, which included moderate (n=76) and severe COVID-19 cases (n=22). The difference of laboratory findings from blood routine examination and hepatorenal function test were retrospectively evaluated between the state of moderate and severe. The disease progression was indicated by oxygenation index.
Age is a risk factor for disease progression from moderate to severe. Lymphocytopenia, neutrophilia, liver and kidney function decreasement occurred in severe patients on admission, compared with moderate patients. Lymphocytopenia and neutrophilia deteriorated at the lowest oxygenation index timepoint in the severe patients. And the oxygenation index was associated with ratio of lymphocyte and neutrophil in COVID-19 patients.
Lymphocytopenia and neutrophilia, which deteriorate in the progression of severe patients, are the main pathogenesis of COVID-19. More measures need to be taken to control lymphocytopenia and neutrophilia in severe COVID-19. Oxygenation index presented potentiality as predictor on the progression of COVID-19.