Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a severe complication of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It may interfere with COVID-19 treatment and delay the recovery, but there is less data about the anticoagulant therapy and sex difference of VTE in patients with COVID-19. The purpose of this study is to study the prevalence, risk factors, anticoagulant therapy and sex difference of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in patients with COVID-19.
The enrolled 121 patients were confirmed positive for COVID-19. All suspected patients with a high Caprini index (≥4) or PADUA index (≥4) received color Doppler Ultrasound (US) to screen DVT in both lower extremities. Clinical characteristics of DVT-COVID-19 patients were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify risk factors related to DVT in COVID-19 patients. The distribution of DVT locations, anticoagulation therapy with sex difference, and the outcomes were also analyzed.
DVT was found in 48% asymptomatic COVID-19 patients with increased PAUDA index or Caprini index by US scanning. Multivariate logistic regression determined that age, CRP and baseline D-dimer were risk factors among COVDI-19 patients. Although the most common DVT location was infrapopliteal (Class I and Class II), higher mortality in DVT-COVID-19 patients was confirmed. DVT-COVID-19 patients presented significant increases in the CRP, neutrophil count and D-dimer throughout the whole inpatient period compared to non-DVT-COVID-19 patients. Although anticoagulation therapy accelerated the recovery of lymphocytopenia condition in DVT patients, men DVT-COVID-19 patients showed higher CRP and neutrophil count vs. lymphocyte count (N/L) ratio but lower lymphocyte count compared to women DVT-COVID-19 patients.
DVT is common in COVID-19 patients with high risk factors, especially for older age, higher CRP and baseline D-dimer populations. It is important to consider sex differences in the anticoagulant therapy among DVT-COVID-19 patients.